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Anatomy of the digestive system

Anatomy of the digestive system

Anatomy of the digestive system

The digestive system neeeds organs that are able to carry out functions, so to carry out these functions there are digestive organs, among others, the mouth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Then to support these functions there are also additional organs, namely salivary glands, teeth, liver, bladder, pancreas, and mesenteries. The inner wall of the gastrion testiral tract consists of four parts namely, the serosa, muscularis, submucosa. The following organs are included in the digestive system:

- Oral cavity and Mouth

Mouth functions

  • Ingestion, food in the from of solids or liquids is in introduced into the body, into the digestive tract throught the first and main door, namely that mouth or oral cavity.
  • Taste, as a flavoring of food that is on the papilae of the tongue.
  • Mastication, the movement of the lower jaw (mandible) assisted by mastication muscles causes the teeth to break the food into smaller pieces. The tongue and cheeks help in placing food between the mouths.
  • Digestion, the anzyme amylase is present in the body through the digestion of carbohydrates (starch).
  • Swallowing, the tongue can help shape food into a boluas and push it bolus to ward the pharynx.
  • Protection, mucin and water in the saliva probide lubrication, and the enzyme lysozyme kills microorganisms that are not good for the body.
Parts of the body
  • Lips and cheeks
Bleber or labia, is structure that is formed from many muscular by orbicolaris oris. The outer lager of the lips covered with skin the cheeks form on the lateral wall of the oral cavity. The part of the cheeks is includding the buccinator outs that snap the cheeks againts the teth and buccal fat pad that are on the sides of the face (Mc Graw Hill, 2004). Bible passages and pipes are very important in the process of mastication speaking or communication. This parts can help move food in the mouth and hold it in the mouth as the food is crushed into small parts.
  • Palate and palatine tonsils
The palate has two parts consisting of the bony interior parts (hard palate) and the unbonded posteria parts (suft palate), which consists of muscles and tissue the function of the palate is very important in the piocess of swallowing and preventing food from entering the nasal cavity the palatine tonsils are located on the leteral wall of the fauces. (Mc Graw Hill, 2004).
  • Tongue
The tongue is lecated in the middle of the mouth filded with skelotal musdes that are lovered with mucous membranes, the tongue serves to move food in the mouth, helps in pushing food into the esophagus (swallowing), as the main role of articulation in speech and communication, as a flavoring in the process of moving food in the mouth. The tongue works with the lips and gums, so it is able to hold food in the mouth during mastication.
  • Tooth
Normally, an adulte has a total number of teeth is 32 teeth in total, each tooth has a crown (above the gum), neck and root (below the gum). Divided into two parts, that is parts of the upper jaw (maxillary) and part of the lower jaw (mandibular). In addition to the division of teeth that consists of the right and left and the bottom of the top and bottom, the four quadiant trap has incisors, canines, premulais, molais, and wisdon teeth its function is almost the same a the tongue, plays a role in the process of mastication and speaking.
  • Pharyngeal
Pharyngeal function
  • Swallowing, the involuntary face of swallowing moves the bolut the mouth to the esophagus. Food is provented from entering the nasal cavity by the soft palate and prevents entry into the lower respiratery system.
  • Breathing, air enters through the nose or mouth passing throught the pharynx to wards the lower respiratory tract.
  • Protection mucus provides lubrication.
Parts of the pharynx

The pharynx consists of 3 parts, namely the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharnx. Normally, food can enter through the oropharynx and larynge pharynx. The nasopharynx serves as a channel in the entry of air during breathing and is associated with the function of hearing. The oropharynx is located in the posterior parts of the mouth, as an inlet of the mouth and loading to the stomach and also serves as an airway for breathing. The laryngopharynx is below the oropharynx, extending from the epiglotis to the bottom of the a gocorticad cartyle of the larynx and having the same function as the oropharynx.


Esophageal Function
  • Propulsion, peristaltic contractionmore the bolus from the pharynx to wards the abdomen. The lowe part of the esophageal sphincter limits the reflex of the abdominal contents back into the esophagus (Mc Graw Hill, 2004).
  • Protection glands that are inside the mucus holp in lubrication and protect the inerior esophagus from acid (Stomach acid)
Parts of the Esophagus

The esophagus is the part of the digestive system that extends from the pharynx to the stomach, it is about 25 cm long and is in the modiastinum, angerior to the vertebrea posterior to the eracea. The esophagus is to carry food from the pharynx to the stomach.

The mechanisme of swallowing include: 1. Food is mixed with saliva and pushed into the pharynx, 2. Involuntary roflection moves food into the esophagus and 3. Peristaltic movements transport food into the stomach.


Abdominal function

  • Storage, Ruggae can help the abdomen to expand the abdominal area and hold (store) food until it can be digested.
  • Absortion, expect for some product (water, alkohol, aspiria) small absorption is in the stomach.
  • mixing and propulsion, penistaltic occurs and forms a milky white liquid called chyme.
  • Protection, mucus provides lubrication and provents digestion of the stomach wall. Stomach acid can kill most microorganisms.
Small Intestine

Function of the small intestine

  • Neutralization, carbonate lons from the pancreas and bilious bile from the liver normalize gastric acid from forming a p h according to the prancratic state and intestinal enzymes.
  • Digestion, enzymes located in the pancreas and located a long the small intestine perfect the break down of the food molecules.
  • Absorption, most nutrients area absorbed either actively or passively, the most absorption is applied to water.
  • Mixing and propulsion, segmental contractions mix the cyme and peristaltic moves the already digested moal into the large intestine.
Part of the small intestine
  • Dvodenum
  • Jojerum
  • Ileum
  • liver
  • Bladder
  • Pancreas


Colon Function

Figure 23.21 Large Intestine The Large Intestine Includes the caecum and rectum.

  • Storage, a portion of the distal portion of the intentine hold, the stool until the stool is expelled. Colled, concentrate and dispose of leftover foodwaste.
  • Mixing and propulsion, the movement of the mass pushes the steal to wards the anus and defecation occurs from the stool.
  • Protection, the mucus and ion movement of the bonate protect the beaker to right the acid proced by the bacteria.
Parts of the colon
  • Cecum
  • Colon
  • Rektum
  • Anal Tube