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Science Shariah And Education

Science Shariah And Education

Science Shariah And Education

1. Curricula planning units hould be set up in institutions of science and technology education to implement the recommendations of this Congerence. The Curricula planners should possess requisite knowledge of Islamic phislosophy and history of science and education besides being broad generalists in their particular spēcialisation. Efforts should be made to train such Islami curricula planners by conducting lectures, seminars and short courses as well as through formal education in teacher training institutions. 

2. The identification of detailed goals of the Shariah of Perennial Knowledge, in relation to the technical goals of particular fields in science and technology, is of utmost importance. The curricula planning units hould initiate the processes to of consultation (شورى ) and consensus ( إجماع ) institutionally, at the levels of the community, the Shariah and tech- nical specialist scholars and Government, to formulate and implement these curricula goals. 

Read Too: Redesigning The Curriculum

3. Science and technology curricula should be planned through analysis of an Islamic hiererchy of needs which are, first, the necessities ( ضروريات ) then the conveniences ( حاجيات ) and lastly, after satisflying these needs in an egalitarian system, the refinements ( تكميليات ) These needs must meet, in a descending order, the interests of the Ummah ( مصلحة الأمة ) the public interest ( المصلحة العامة ) of the country, and lastly the special interest ( المصلحة الخاصة ) of individualis. This would avoid misallocation of resources, brain- first, the necessities ( tarian system, the refinements ( drain etc, while contributing to the development of appropri- ate as well as strategically necessary sciences and technologies. 

4. The curricula structure should be divided into the technical stem and the Shariyya or perennial stem. The Shariyya stem includes 

(a) the subjects or courses in the "perennial and ancillary knowledge" which should be bompulsory for all Mislims, and (ii) the inter-diciplinary or socio-technical subjects whose major part or scope is related to Islamic ideology, ethics, and values. Such subjects should be included in the curricula for their instrumental function in order to make the Islamic scientist and technologist efficient, effective and development- oriented in his professional life. 

(b) It is of utmost importance that there be a structural balance between the major stems, and within them, in order to produce a technical person whose func- tion al specializaation has not been neglected or compromised. 

Read Too: Reclassification Of Knowledge

(c) The subjects in the Shariyya stem, excluding the interdici- plinary subjects, should be allocated about one lifth (20%) of the time or courses required for graduation.

5. The structural stems should be so organized, at the macto level and the micro-level, that Islamic ideology, ethics and value judgements are fully integrated with subjects and courses in the technical stem and the inter-diciplinary subjects of schientific and thchnological curricula . It is imperative, therefore, that departments, institurees and centre be established for studies, research and publication on: (a) Islamic philosophy, history and sociology of science and technology for developments, and (b) Islamic ethics and values in science and technology. 

6. To expedite the development of the subject-matter con- tent in integrated Islamic science and technology education, pilot or experimental projects should be started in schools, col- leges and universities. 

7. Instructors in schools and universities should be trained to apply Islamic learning theories developed on the basis of Islamic psychology and sociology of learning. They should be made aware of the causes of the backwardness of Muslim students in learning. Thus the learning theories and activities should focus on "learning" (تعلم ) insteed of "instruction" ( تعليم ) developing the various levels of cognition instead of memorization learning the sucjebt, and learning from texbooks, instread of relaying on commentaries ( شروع ) and notes ( حواشى ) and their modern equivalents; indivualized learning and evaluation, etc. 

8. Different strategies should be adopted for introducing Islamic ideology, ethics, and values in science and technology curricula where optimum conditions for integration are not pre- sent. These may be called instrumental approachers ; 

(a) In the foreign and Muslim minority countries or edu- cational institurions permission might be obtained from the authờ rities to substitute courses offered, for ecample, by the Departments of Islamic Studies in liuo of the courses in the social sciences stem required to be studied in the secularized departments. 

(b) The adjunct method might refer to introducing cour- ses, or supplementary readings, from the Islamic viewpoint to add to courses in existing secular curricula. This could be done on a formal or informal basis. 

(c). The coure approach refer to using the Ouranic refe- rence in the teaching of geo-physical siences, social sciences, technology, etc. 

(d) The relational approach might suggest, for example, the teaching of the principles of Islamic water law to demon - state the relation between the Quran, the Sunnah and the issues and problems of water law. 

(e). A course on literature could be used to assign the writings, in prose and poetry, of classical Islamic scientists, thus making the subject of literature and instrument for readings in the history and philosophy of Islamic sciences.

(By: Hasan Langgulung)